An introduction to Wittgenstein, the philosopher
- Tractatus: The world according to Wittgenstein
- The later philosophy
- Conclusions: philosophy, ethics, science, religion
- Wittgenstein: (1889 - 1951), Austrian-British philosopher. Considered twice as the "last great".
- Wealthy family. Jewish grandfather. Met Brahms, Mahler.
- Went to England to study engineering. Interested in mathematics, then in philosophy.
- 1911. Read "Principles of Mathematics" by Russell. met Frege.
- Went to Cambridge to study with Bertrand Russell.
- In Norway: Worked on philosophical questions.
- Austrian army service, taken into captivity by Italians. After war - gave his money. (before war donated to George Truckle & to Rilke)
- 1918. Completed "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus"
- Believed he solved all philosophical problems, so he quit philosophy.
- 1925. Meeting with "Vienna Circle". Schlick, Waismann, Carnap
- 1929. Returned to Cambridge to resume his work in philosophy.
- Began to reject certain conclusions of the Tractatus and to develop the position reflected in his Philosophical Investigations
- 1939. Professor of philosophy in Cambridge, after Moore.
- British nationality, worked in a hospital during the war.
- 1947. resigned, lived in Ireland in a cabin on the coast.
- 1951. Died in Cambridge.
- Wittgenstein is not understood. Many different interpretations.
- At the end of 19C, a trend in philosophy - Questions about language instead of the the metaphysical "object".
- New idea: The daily life language is not coherent.
- Frege and Russell thought that new Logic is the answer.
- Wittgenstein studied Frege and Russell Logic calculus.
- He thought that we need to understand the natural language, not artificial one.
- He thought about a "clear language". Not "blurred".
- Wittgenstein put limits to the expression of thought.
- Wittgenstein is "inside" the language limits. The limit is set by logic.
- What is the outside of language - senseless, nonsense.
- Language = thought = world.
Tractatus: The world according to Wittgenstein
Language (T5.6, T5.62)
Total Propositions (T4.001)
What we can think (T5.61)
All true thoughts (T3.01)
Total Reality (T2.063)
Propositions (T3.1, T4.023)|
True Elementary (T5)
Model of reality (T2.12)
|Facts (T1.1, T2.06)|
Elementary propositions (T4.21)
Connection of names (T4.22)
Atomic facts (T2)
=state of affairs
Name (T3.22, T4.0311)
Simple signs (T3.201, T3.202)
Elements of picture (T2.1514)
Objects = Things (T2.01)
- The later philosophy
- Later work is not the opposite of Tractatus, but it is more "realistic".
- Still based on language.
- Still the goal of philosophy is to explain, not to describe or to establish theories.
- Thought is not an internal process which is translated to speech.
- Language is a collection of different activities, each with its own logic. Language is NOT total of propositions and not total predicates. (what about commands, prayers, worry, questions..)
- What is the definition of "game"? there is no common def for all games. "board games", etc.
- Language is not necessarily attached to the world.
- There is no use for the concept of "reality - phenomena".
- The sense or the meaning (of a sign, or language) is a result of understanding and explanation.
- Wittgenstein breaks the correspondence between "name - subject". The sign does not attached to a "thing" by the means of though (not like in the Tractatus).
- A grammatical sentence is a presentation rule. Like agenda of a map. Like the chess game. Not to be confirmed (True) or denied (False, contradiction).
- Methaphysics mistake is the un-recognition of the rammatical characteristic of the language. Metaphysics approach is that the presentation rules are claims or assumptions about the world.
- The "philosophical I". Philosophy is confused by the term "I". I is not equal to a person name. Cognition / perception (=todaa) is not a subject of introspection.
- "I'm aware" is not (what Decartes thought) an empirical sentence. The doubt is excluded here in a grammatical way. This is just a signaling "It's me".
- Language game: The meaning of the language depends on the context. There is a process by which one learns how to use terms of the language. Language game is the language and the activities which it is built upon.
- The constructor and his assistance.
- To guess riddles
- To report about an event
- To suggest and to examine a hypothesis.
- To play on a theatre stage
- Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
- Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics
- Philosophical Remarks
- Philosophical Grammar
- The Blue and Brown Books
- Philosophical Investigations
- On Certainty
- Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology
- Culture and Value